Different Forms of Energy

Energy: the ability to do work


Every movement we make requires energy. There are six forms of energy.

Chemical Energy: energy that stores within the bonds

Mechanical Energy: energy of a moving object

Thermal Energy: energy of the motion of molecules (or heat energy)

Radiation Energy: energy of lights, electromagnetic waves

Electrical Energy: energy of the movement of electrons

Nuclear Energy: energy stored within the nucleus of an atom

In our daily life basis,  energy had converted from one form to another; because according to the laws of thermodynamics, energy cannot be created or destroyed.


In this image, it shows that a girl is cycling. The peddling produces thermal energy and mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy to heat up the water. Which the boiling water then produces thermal energy.


Active Listening

In this term, we learn about communication, one of the topics we covered in class is active listening.

A conversation requires both parties to pay attention. People often use the analogy of a ping-pong game to describe what a conversation should be like, taking turn talking. Besides from this essential point, it is also fundamental to listen to what others say. Being an active listener would show the speaker that, you are paying attention to what they are saying.

Three basic steps to becoming a better listener. *These are the steps that I especially struggle with.

Step 1: Listen to understand rather than listen to speak.

Personally, sometimes I found myself listening to find the opportunity to jump into the conversation. It is common for people to listen to find flaws, or chance so that they can talk about their own idea. However, in order to become a better communicator, we also need to be a better listener. A way to listen to understand is to mentally take notes of what the speaker said.

Step 2: Showing small gestures of understanding and verbal encouragement.

Nodding your head as a sign of agreement, if you agree with the point, would show that you are having a similar idea, this would encourage the speaker to talk more about their idea. Saying small verbal of encouragement such as “oh, I see” or “I understand” helps the speaker to understand their tone and information.

Step 3: Giving a small summary of what the speaker said.

I personally find this strategy helpful, not only that I am able to pay more attention but rather understand what the speaker said fully. This is an opportunity to check whether your interpretation of the information is correct. As well as a way to show the speaker that you’re listening.   

Function Transformation

Graph Transformation:

A group of students is currently learning Pre-calculus, the introduction to calculus. A part of our lesson is to understand functions and their transformation.

Graph transformation is about understanding how does the graph change if we add, subtract, or multiply a certain value to a function. To be a function, an x-value can only correspond to one y-value.

This is a function because none of the x-value corresponds to more than one y-value. 

The graph shifts upward by 5 units.  

(-2, -8) → (-2, -3)     (0, 0) → (0, 5)        (2, 8) → (2, 13)

Continue reading “Function Transformation”

Determining Bonding Types

Determining Bonding Types:

In this experiment, we were given three different types of substances, A, B, and C. However, we do not know the identity of each substance, therefore, we have to determine which substance is paraffin, sucrose and sodium bicarbonate based on some of their physical properties. In this lab, we tested two different characteristics, melting point and solubility, to figure out what type of bond the substance has.

Data and Analysis


Data Table: Melting Points
  Observations about the solid substance Melting Order Ionic, Covalent or

Polar Covalent?

Substance A melt slowly

Turn brown

The smell comes out

2 polar covalent has a low melting point but not as low as those in the non-polar covalent
Substance B nothing happen yet 3 ionic compound it has a high melting point
Substance C melt very quicklyturn into liquid

The smell   out

1 non- polar covalent has a low melting point


Data Table: Solubility in water
  Observations Solubility Ionic, Covalent or Polar Covalent? Reasoning for identification
Substance A When put in the solvent, the substance sink Soluble polar covalent since water has is a polar covalent with both positive and negative charge, therefore compound that has charge (ionic and polar) would be attracted to the water molecules
Substance B when put in the solvent, the substance sink,

melt quickly, faster than sugar

Soluble ionic compound since water has is a polar covalent with both positive and negative charge, therefore compound that has charge (ionic and polar) would be attracted to the water molecules and easily breaks the compound bonds
Substance C When put in the solvent, the substance float Insoluble non-polar covalent non-polar compound doesn’t have charges


Analysis Data Table –Compiling & Interpreting Results
  Melting Point Order Solubility Ionic, Covalent or Polar Covalent?
Substance A 2 Soluble Polar Covalent
Substance B 3 Soluble Ionic
Substance C 1 Insoluble Non-polar covalent


What is the identity of substance A?  What is your evidence and reasoning for this identification?

Substance A has a low melting point which means that it is either a polar or non-polar covalent compound. However this substance is soluble, therefore it is a polar covalent compound. Therefore, substance A is sucrose.

What is the identity of substance B?  What is your evidence and reasoning for this identification?

The identification of substance B be is sodium carbonate. This substance has a high melting point and is quickly dissolved in water, which is two of the identification of an ionic compound.

What is the identity of substance C?  What is your evidence and reasoning for this identification?

Substance C has a low melting point which means that it is either a polar or non-polar covalent compound. However, it is insoluble, which are the identification of a non-polar solvent compound.  Since paraffin wax is the only non-polar covalent compound, substance C is paraffin wax.

One source of error in this experiment could have been the heat intensity of the hot plate, some part of this hot plate might be hotter (the inner part), therefore, the substance that is put in that place might melt faster than the other. This can possibly change the order of which substance starts to melt first.

I would reduce the error and improve the lab by…

I way I would do to reduce this error is to melt the substance one by one, as well as putting that substance on the same location. As well as use timer to record how long it takes to melt each substance.


Finalizing Khmer Poetry Book

This first term of Khmer class, we predominantly worked on finalizing the Khmer Poetry Book that we wrote last school year. In Cambodia, poets always have rhyming within their writings, and we do not have a free verse-poem; so in this book, it’s consist of different types of poems, and how to write them. Furthermore, it also gives information regarding how to read the poems, many poems in Khmer are often has a different rhythms on how to read, and have different syllables to stress on; since each type of poem is unique, this book aims to help Cambodians to learn how to write poems. In addition, there are sections within the book that consists of different songs that the Liger Senior Cohort wrote in Khmer Class.


Below is an example of the 10 syllable poem or 10 peak poem, where each line must have 10 syllables, this example poem is written by Ly So Mony, the author of សៀវភៅកំណាព្យខ្មែរ.

As you can see the lines connecting words together, are representing that those syllables rhythm with each other. So in 10 peak poem, each line has two phrases, and each stanza has two lines.

For rhyming within stanza, the last syllable of the first phrase of a line has to rythm with the fifth syllable of the second phrase of the same line.  

And for rhyming across stanza, the last syllable of the second phrase of the second lines has to rhyme with the last syllable of second phrase of first line of the next stanza.


American History

This first term of Literacy Essential, our main focus for this class was the American History which aims to prepare students for the historical passage of the SAT exam. We read texts from a website called CommonLit such as: Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death, Excerpts from Thomas Jefferson’s Writing on American Indians, Causes of the American Civil War, America’s Shifting Views on Immigration, Excerpt from The Jungle, and The Great Depression. When we finished reading an article, we have to write an open response to further our understand of these historical text, as well as, work on “Vocabulary Exploration,” which is about exploring difficult words and understand how to use those words in all of theirs forms and part of speeches.

My response for the question of: Compare and contrast how Hoover and Roosevelt responded to the Great Depression according to the text. How did their actions impact this period of economic depression?

Both President Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt had both tried to end the Great Depression during their office. However, the main difference was the presidents’ judgement on the severity of the recession. Herbert Hoover “believed that the government should not directly intervene in the economy,” because he thought that just like other recessions in the past, it would run its course. So, consequently, He did not assist Americans through this tragedy. But, eventually he exercised “two laws to spur new home construction and public work programs,” but even so, those policies were too small and too late to make any significant difference.  

In contrast, Franklin Roosevelt started his office by believing that the recession is a crisis, and that it was his duty to restore the American economy to health. Thus, Franklin Roosevelt launched an impactful program called New Deals that consisted of many programs that helped to reform and recover from this economic setback. By: “bring[ing] Americans out of the Hoovervilles and put them back to work,” and ensuring that savers don’t lose their money in a bank crash; which helped to circulate the money within the country’s economy. Furthermore, the programs, Wagner Act, guaranteed basic rights for workers to have better terms and conditions at work. As a result these policies provided jobs to millions of Americans who are unskilled and unemployed, which fulfilled his pledge in his inaugural speech, that The Great Depression was a parlous situation and that America “must act and act quickly,” so that the economy will revive and will prosper.   

Example of the Vocabulary Exploration:

Jest: (noun) – a joke

  • Definition: (verb) – to say something and intend it to be funny
  • Example in the article: “…. they could now study the whole of the spoiled-meat industry on the inside, and read a new and grim meaning into that old Packingtown jest—that they use everything of the pig except the squeal. ”
  • Sentence: For those that just met him wouldn’t be able to tell that his suggestion was a jest because of his emotionless expression.
    • I found it’s frankly rude and inconsiderate when people jested about wage-gap.   
  • Different Form: In jest, Surely you jest, jester
    • In jest: (Common phrase) – not serious, as a joke
      • Everyone should have their own secret language with their friends, I personally found it’s amusing to speak in jest knowing that only my roommates understand the reference.   
    • Surely you jest: (common phrase) – surely you joking
      • Surely you jest; I don’t believe that you would just quit that competition just because you brother couldn’t join.
    • Jester: (noun) – someone whose job is to make people laugh
      • I like the original costume of Harley Quinn where she dressed up as a jester, after all she was known as a jokester-villain.


SAT Preparation

This term of Math Essential, our class was focusing preparing for the SAT test on the 6th of October; therefore students were independently working on different areas that they are struggling with. One of the main topics that I learned was Unit Circle.

Unit Circle is a circle with the radius of 1 with the origin of (0,0), which is used to calculate and understand the relationship sines and cosines of special triangles such as 30/60/90 and 45/45/90.

For Unit Circle the measurement of angle is in radians instead of degree, there are 2π radians, which is equivalent to 360 degrees.

United Circle with 30/60/90 triangle

Unit Circle with 45/45/90 triangle


Atomic Emission: Flame Test Lab

One of the topic that we learned in Chemistry class this term was about Atomic Emission; sets frequencies of the electromagnetic waves that emitted by atoms.

Reason why atoms emit electromagnetic waves:

When atoms receives energy from an external source, the atoms will absorb the energy and become excited, which is when electrons are move to a higher energy orbital. The excited atoms then emit photons of light in order to go back to the ground state, which is.

Introduction to Flame Test Lab: (This introduction was written by our facilitator as the Pre-Lab)

Flame tests provide a way to qualitatively test for the presence of specific elements by seeing colored flames.  The heat of the bunsen burner excites the electrons in the atom, and this energy is released as the electrons “fall back” to their ground states. The color we see is a combination of the visible wavelengths of light emitted by the atoms.  

If you have a spectroscope you can also make quantitative observations. A spectroscope can be used to see a pattern of narrow lights called an emission (bright-line) spectrum.  The actually wavelengths of the spectrum serve as a quantitative test to determine atoms identities.  Each element has a different “pattern” of electrons, so it will show a different combination of colors.  

In this lab you will perform flame tests on seven different elements. You will use your observations to identify an unknown solution.  

Click here to read my lab report