Relationship Between Lesson and Students’ Comprehension

Research Topic: Using Anchoring Bias to Improve Highschool Student’s Comprehension of Social Study Lessons

Lessons within social studies are known to be “multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary”, meaning that there are many different academic subjects such as political science, human geography, sociology, involve to approach and comprehend a societal issue. Therefore, this field can be subjective, meaning that students can use their own opinion to comprehend or make judgment of the matter raised in the lesson. According to the concept of judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases by Kahneman and Tversky, 1974, anchoring bias would affect student’s comprehension and memorization. Anchoring bias is a tendency to use the first giving information to make a judgment, therefore, those students’ decision making is evolved around the first fundamental information. This experiment seeks to understand the relationship between the first giving information (anchoring bias) of the social lesson and students’ understanding of a topic and their opinion regarding the issue raises in the lesson. This study aims to set a neutral first given information, that allows students to make rational information within a bias to influence their conclusion.

Observing Osmosis in Bok Choy

This lab was aimed to visualize the concept of osmosis, a process in which a cell loses or gains water depending on the concentration of solute relative to the cell. In this experiment, the solute is the salt, while water is the solvent. Students were divided into a pair- given a vegetable to each team, and we had to measure the movement of the water.

 

Introduction to Osmosis and Dehydration Lab:

Osmosis is a form of diffusion, the process in which cells uptake or lose water; water molecules move across cells’ membrane to a location with a higher concentration of solute, which in this experiment is the salt. Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis (commonly known as Bok choy), just like all other living organisms have cells and tissues that are composed of mostly water. Therefore, organisms’ cells will lose water to the saltier (hypertonic) outside environment, causes it to dehydrate and shrink, which is also called plasmolysis. In addition, organisms’ cells will gain water from the freshwater (hypotonic) solution, allows it to gain mass. Due to another form of diffusion, organisms will also gain salt, due to the higher salinity of the solution, the salt molecules would be moving into the plant cells, which contains less salt content. Thereby, the organisms that are put in the experimental groups’ solution, will become salty.

Osmosis and Dehydration Lab

Active Listening

In this term, we learn about communication, one of the topics we covered in class is active listening.

A conversation requires both parties to pay attention. People often use the analogy of a ping-pong game to describe what a conversation should be like, taking turn talking. Besides from this essential point, it is also fundamental to listen to what others say. Being an active listener would show the speaker that, you are paying attention to what they are saying.

Three basic steps to becoming a better listener. *These are the steps that I especially struggle with.

Step 1: Listen to understand rather than listen to speak.

Personally, sometimes I found myself listening to find the opportunity to jump into the conversation. It is common for people to listen to find flaws, or chance so that they can talk about their own idea. However, in order to become a better communicator, we also need to be a better listener. A way to listen to understand is to mentally take notes of what the speaker said.

Step 2: Showing small gestures of understanding and verbal encouragement.

Nodding your head as a sign of agreement, if you agree with the point, would show that you are having a similar idea, this would encourage the speaker to talk more about their idea. Saying small verbal of encouragement such as “oh, I see” or “I understand” helps the speaker to understand their tone and information.

Step 3: Giving a small summary of what the speaker said.

I personally find this strategy helpful, not only that I am able to pay more attention but rather understand what the speaker said fully. This is an opportunity to check whether your interpretation of the information is correct. As well as a way to show the speaker that you’re listening.   

This story is the prequel of a short story collection calls “Mythical Dream.”

 

Mythical Dream

By Nassa Veness

 

All readers of this book have been asserted the right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act “Unknown” to be identified as the authors of this work.

 

First published: Unknown

ISBN: Unknown

For my beloved readers,

Be aware of what is a story

And what is not

With all my love and wishes

 

Once upon a time, there was a girl who took her first breath as her mother took her last. Once upon a time, there was a girl who smiled at the world she born into, as her father cried to the unjust of his wife’s death. Once upon a time, there was a girl who looked at her mother, but her mother could no longer see her. Once upon a time, there was a girl who looked at her father, but her father was too broken to see her.

The man learned the hard way of the idea that everything has its own consequences, that people don’t have the power to change the destiny, even when they know what’s going to happen. Even if, they manage to save something valuable, something else that worths as much will be lost.

 

Her birth brought nothing but bad luck, many villagers, friends, and family, had warned the man about how this girl would bring catastrophe to him, but he refused to listen. It wasn’t the love he had for the girl, he didn’t have any, but rather a promise to his wife, who died so their daughter could live to see the world. It was the only thing he could do for his beloved and now dead wife.

He tried to his full potential to take care of her, however, he was just a caretaker and never a father. Sometimes, he wondered whether she is really bad luck. In the moment of doubt, she seemed to be; after her birth, his crops yield had gradually decreased. Four years ago, he became sick, and no healer had any clue of what was wrong. Everyone concluded that it was the girl’s fault, that she was a witch who traps him in all of these unfortunate events. Maybe they were right, maybe this now 16 years of age, daughter of his is a witch; after all, she is beyond his wife. He could feel her the energy of her aura.  

No matter how much doubt he had on the girl, the sharp chocolate eyes of hers were a copy of his wife’s. Those were the eyes that he was in love with, but of course, they now belonged to the wrong person. Once in a while they brought him hope, but mostly it was a dagger, that consistently slicing his heart. Those eyes were the reminder, of the hollow within his heart, the numbness within his body, and the loneliness within his soul. But predominantly, it served as a nag, whispering to his ears that this creature that he lived with was biologically related to him and that she processed part of his wife’s soul.

 

As his body grew weaker, his mind became clearer, he became more relaxed. It didn’t matter, whether he lived with a witch. It didn’t matter, whether she tried to speed up this deadline, he would soon be able to see his wife. That’s what happens when good people like him die, who isn’t a sin like her; he would be reunited with those he loves and lived the eternity together.

After four years of drinking this medicine, after four years of being sick, the man weakly smiled at the cup of the bitter, plants brewed of a cure in his hand. This would be his last time to ever drink it. It would kill him but he would gladly accept this fate because it would get him out of this misery. He was tired of breathing and not living, tired of being in this body that didn’t have a soul. He quickly glanced at the girl sitting near his bed and offered her his first smile, since the day she born. “You can’t change what will happen, don’t try to. It will kill you, I swear it will always be the person you love the most,” he said as he stared into the chocolate eyes.

Thank you, was the last thing he said before he sipped the medicine, and collapsed into the bed.

The warning was disturbing, however, her mind was overwhelmed by his gratitude, thank you. The words still echoed in her head, that was probably the only time she saw the man without his emotionless mask. The closest experience to having a father.  The smile on his face swamped the butterflies in her stomach. It was the closest thing to an I love you. It was the best decision she had ever made. His eyes were still opened, but he could no longer see her, his own death had healed his broken pieces. His dilating pupils were staring straight at her, but the happiness clouded his visions. He would soon see his wife, a mother she never had, and it didn’t seem to matter to him that she would now have to fight this world alone. As much as she hated him for never been a father, she knew that killing him was the only way for him to ever experience happiness again, and she did it for him. But most importantly, she killed him for those who are alive.     

 

Everything had consequences, normally the people within the village blame her for no particular reasons, except for the fact that her mother died as she gave birth to her. However, this time was different, they were right to say that she killed her father, but that wasn’t necessarily mean she was wrong. It was for the best. He even agreed with her. He knew what she put in the medicine, and he decided to drink it anyway. Nevertheless, there was no argument with these constricted-mind people, she would never win an argument with them. Because they are not logical, neither like who and whatever she is.

So not long after, people started to raise the issue of dark magic, of her being a witch. They were right, she is something different, she saw what was going to happen and she changed it for them. They should be grateful, but of course, no one showed any indication of gratitude or understanding of how much she sacrificed for them. And instead, they betrayed her by banishing her.

Now homeless, she navigated the forest by herself. However, her conscience told her to not go far away from the village. Walking for a few more minutes, following the rhythms of the water pouring down the cliff, she came upon a waterfall.

After knowing what her father planned to do, staying near water is the closest place where she could reach for serenity. Where clear water jumping off the rocky ledge into the pool below, molecules after molecules in a repeating pattern that seemed to never end, a regularity that she knew she could rely on. The image of the glaring red and orange still flickered in her head, even though her father had been dead for two days.

Walking along the rocks that barricaded the pool of the water stream, she spotted a small footpath. Walking along the path, she noticed that there used to flower beds grew in rows along sides of the footway leading toward a cottage. Unfortunately, those flowers were now rotten and decayed due to the lack of tending a fairytale ago. Approaching the cottage, she realized that it was still quite new, even though, it covered in years of dust and dirt. Standing in front of it, she could catch a glimpse of its beauty before the dust and time covered its brightness. However, when she tried to hold on to its beauty, the image before her eyes flickered back to its dustiness. No matter how dull and dirty this place was, it had a sense of home. Her heart warmed at the thought of stepping into it, the familiarness of it all drawn her toward it. Even though, she never stepped into this cottage before, but she had a feeling that it will welcome her home. For the first time in life, she might find a  place that would be a home and not a house.

 

The first night at this new home was strange, it was the first time she had a dream, that she couldn’t make sense of. “if you have to choose between her and me, chose her.” What does that suppose to mean? Who is that “me”? And who is that “her”? She didn’t consider much of the dream because a dream was just a dream, her life moved on and so she should walk along with it.

 

Just because she left her village, that didn’t mean that she wanted to live like a wild animal, not like there was anything wrong with wild animals. But no matter what, she needed to join the civilization. One couldn’t isolate herself from her own species. So, one early morning, she set off to a nearby village, where she knew she would be able to somewhat blended in. No one knows about her mother, no one knows about her father. She worked as a fortune teller-ish magician, people seemed to be fascinated a person who can “tell their future or past.” It wasn’t like she told them something news, just simples things that she could read of them. Their name, age, family, something that happened recently, something that was still clinging to them. They did not know that she could see beyond with more time, like with her father, she could read him like a book.

Before sunset, she would travel home, back to her cottage where she belongs. Although, most nights, she would bed plunged into the same dreams of the unknown source whispering “if you have to choose between her and me, chose her.” Now the dream was okay, she got used to it, she could push into the back of her consciousness. It would be her best choice to ignore the strangeness and focused on being normal.

 

Her fame of being the best fortune teller-ish magician caused people to line up and meet her. It was enduring, for the first time, people didn’t accuse this ability as witchery, rather they worshipped her, like she a goddess. And then there was a day when he came in. Seeing his face, she knew his name, his history, and his struggles. It was rare to find someone like her, someone that belonged to a group but managed to still be an outcast. When she first met him, it was like a dream comes true. She knew that she was no longer needed words to describe how she felt, he would understand.

 

Now laying with her head on his shoulder, they shared stories, while staring at the roof of her cottage, their cottage. The wooden pillars, that was what he promised to be. To support her world from falling down, to be there for her. To be the first and only person who understands her. Maybe, from now on she could understand what it was like to be normal. To have someone who loves her unconditionally. All her stories matter to him, even the stupid dream. “If you have to choose between her and me, chose her.” He tried to decode it with her, making suggestions, everything she said seems to be valuable to him.  

Each morning, they went to the village together and came back together. In addition to the waterfall, this routine was a repeating pattern that she could rely on. Or so, she hoped to rely on. Despite all his promises, the pattern broke, when she woke up and he was gone. Panic rushed through her body, fear clutched her heart, she could not lose him. She could not live without him by her side.

 

Out, she ran through the door, only to be awestruck by a blanket of smoke that fogged the blue sky. Confused as to what caused such a smoke, she cautiously walked to the direction of it. Until the smell of the smoke hit her nostrils that when she knew what it is. Panic ruptured her through her body, her fingers started to shake, her lips quivered from this shock. This couldn’t be happening! She was supposed to end it the day that her father died, she was supposed to change the future. She quickly started running back to the place she used to shelter, the place of her miserable childhood. As much as she hated it there, she couldn’t stand the thought of losing it. Losing everything that she was apart of.

Time slowed down as she turned back and glance at her home. A feeling of certainty that she wouldn’t come back, struck her. How dumb could she be? The familiarity, the welcomeness, the dreams, it all made sense. Here was where the promise lies. Here was where her mother asked her father to choose her instead of herself. “If you have to choose between her and me, chose her.” She was supposed to die, but her mother saved her. Because of saving her, her mother died. Dumbfounded by the fact that her boyfriend left her, dumbfounded by the truth of her childhood, she ran toward the smoke source and promised to never come back.

 

The eeriness of silence hit her ears, there was no vigorous chirping of birds and insects. There were no snarls, and whispering behind of her back.

She scanned the landscape of this aftermath, there was nothing left except for a tree that lost all it leaves to the hands of the veil flames. Everything turned down to ashes. The place she killed to save was now a pile of dirt and dust. Everything was gone, the houses, the shops, the plants, the people. Wasn’t this what she supposed to stop? The flashes of images of flames within her father’s eyes the day before she killed him.

A moan traveled through the air, she looked up and see that a man slump against the tree. She almost laughed out of joy. Almost. Until she noticed that the person is her boyfriend.

He smiled at her as he told her that he burned this place for her, as he closed his eyes and joined the eternity. He did everything, he killed everything to destroy and untangle her from her past. And that was when she understands. “You can’t change what will happen, don’t try to. It will kill you, I swear it will always be the person you love the most.”

She can’t change what will happen. She shouldn’t try to. It came and killed her because it was someone that she loved the most that did it. Her boyfriend set the fire, that her father supposed to set.

 

Acknowledgments

I am deeply thankful to those who taught me to be aware of what is a story and what is not.

 

Function Transformation

Graph Transformation:

A group of students is currently learning Pre-calculus, the introduction to calculus. A part of our lesson is to understand functions and their transformation.

Graph transformation is about understanding how does the graph change if we add, subtract, or multiply a certain value to a function. To be a function, an x-value can only correspond to one y-value.

This is a function because none of the x-value corresponds to more than one y-value. 

The graph shifts upward by 5 units.  

(-2, -8) → (-2, -3)     (0, 0) → (0, 5)        (2, 8) → (2, 13)

Continue reading “Function Transformation”

Determining Bonding Types

Determining Bonding Types:

In this experiment, we were given three different types of substances, A, B, and C. However, we do not know the identity of each substance, therefore, we have to determine which substance is paraffin, sucrose and sodium bicarbonate based on some of their physical properties. In this lab, we tested two different characteristics, melting point and solubility, to figure out what type of bond the substance has.

Data and Analysis

 

Data Table: Melting Points
  Observations about the solid substance Melting Order Ionic, Covalent or

Polar Covalent?

Reasoning
Substance A melt slowly

Turn brown

The smell comes out

2 polar covalent has a low melting point but not as low as those in the non-polar covalent
Substance B nothing happen yet 3 ionic compound it has a high melting point
Substance C melt very quicklyturn into liquid

The smell   out

1 non- polar covalent has a low melting point

 

Data Table: Solubility in water
  Observations Solubility Ionic, Covalent or Polar Covalent? Reasoning for identification
Substance A When put in the solvent, the substance sink Soluble polar covalent since water has is a polar covalent with both positive and negative charge, therefore compound that has charge (ionic and polar) would be attracted to the water molecules
Substance B when put in the solvent, the substance sink,

melt quickly, faster than sugar

Soluble ionic compound since water has is a polar covalent with both positive and negative charge, therefore compound that has charge (ionic and polar) would be attracted to the water molecules and easily breaks the compound bonds
Substance C When put in the solvent, the substance float Insoluble non-polar covalent non-polar compound doesn’t have charges

 

Analysis Data Table –Compiling & Interpreting Results
  Melting Point Order Solubility Ionic, Covalent or Polar Covalent?
Substance A 2 Soluble Polar Covalent
Substance B 3 Soluble Ionic
Substance C 1 Insoluble Non-polar covalent

Result

What is the identity of substance A?  What is your evidence and reasoning for this identification?

Substance A has a low melting point which means that it is either a polar or non-polar covalent compound. However this substance is soluble, therefore it is a polar covalent compound. Therefore, substance A is sucrose.

What is the identity of substance B?  What is your evidence and reasoning for this identification?

The identification of substance B be is sodium carbonate. This substance has a high melting point and is quickly dissolved in water, which is two of the identification of an ionic compound.

What is the identity of substance C?  What is your evidence and reasoning for this identification?

Substance C has a low melting point which means that it is either a polar or non-polar covalent compound. However, it is insoluble, which are the identification of a non-polar solvent compound.  Since paraffin wax is the only non-polar covalent compound, substance C is paraffin wax.

One source of error in this experiment could have been the heat intensity of the hot plate, some part of this hot plate might be hotter (the inner part), therefore, the substance that is put in that place might melt faster than the other. This can possibly change the order of which substance starts to melt first.

I would reduce the error and improve the lab by…

I way I would do to reduce this error is to melt the substance one by one, as well as putting that substance on the same location. As well as use timer to record how long it takes to melt each substance.

 

Research Topic

Topic: Using Tversky and Kahneman’s heuristics to improve learning.

Question: is it possible to use Tversky and Kahneman’s heuristics to improve students’ learning and comprehension?

Their heuristics are believe to be the influence factors of which people deal with uncertain situation. I believe that this also apply to learning because if an experience can affect the view of one decision making, then this will also we related to school, such as how an experience in class or a result in a test influence student’s view of the subject and lesson.

I personally fascinated by how human emotion and experience shape and structure us. And I think that the interference and assumption of emotion and experience is influence by the heuristics, which then influence students’ academic.

Therefore, I want to do an experiment on whether or not heuristics also influence when learning new knowledge or gaining new experiences.

Final Research Topic Question: How can we use Anchoring Bias to improve High School students’ grade in Cambodia? 

Finalizing Khmer Poetry Book

This first term of Khmer class, we predominantly worked on finalizing the Khmer Poetry Book that we wrote last school year. In Cambodia, poets always have rhyming within their writings, and we do not have a free verse-poem; so in this book, it’s consist of different types of poems, and how to write them. Furthermore, it also gives information regarding how to read the poems, many poems in Khmer are often has a different rhythms on how to read, and have different syllables to stress on; since each type of poem is unique, this book aims to help Cambodians to learn how to write poems. In addition, there are sections within the book that consists of different songs that the Liger Senior Cohort wrote in Khmer Class.

 

Below is an example of the 10 syllable poem or 10 peak poem, where each line must have 10 syllables, this example poem is written by Ly So Mony, the author of សៀវភៅកំណាព្យខ្មែរ.

As you can see the lines connecting words together, are representing that those syllables rhythm with each other. So in 10 peak poem, each line has two phrases, and each stanza has two lines.

For rhyming within stanza, the last syllable of the first phrase of a line has to rythm with the fifth syllable of the second phrase of the same line.  

And for rhyming across stanza, the last syllable of the second phrase of the second lines has to rhyme with the last syllable of second phrase of first line of the next stanza.

 

Healthcare System in Cambodia

For this first term of Healthcare Exploration, we were learning about the healthcare system in Cambodia, as well as, different perspectives and areas of improvement within the health services. We had talked to many different NGO and hospitals, both private and public, regarding their services and their views toward the healthcare system. There were some inspirational moments, where the medical staffs raised a remarkable point regarding the improvement.

Different inspirational quotes:

“Technology and education should parallel each other.”

Referral Hospital Manager

A doctor from a Referral Hospital in Phnom Penh said that “Technology and education should parallel each other.” Meaning that it is essential to understand that with only just technological advancement that doesn’t necessary improve the healthcare system in Cambodia. Our nation also needs technicians who specialize in using the medical tools as well, implying that there is still a lack of human resources within the medical field.

“You can build a health center, but health centers don’t treat people. People treat people.”

Medicins San Frontiers

A doctor from Doctor Without Border said that building health facilities doesn’t necessarily improve the acceptability of the healthcares, and that quality human resources in the medical field is an essential aspect to improve the quality of the healthcare.

After this first round, I was inspired to do a healthcare related project. This project is about creating a flyer that contain a list of precautions that patients can take in order to reduce the risk of getting Healthcare Associated Infection, which aims to provide a basic health education for patients and their family to avoid further risk.

Cell Organelles: Peroxisomes

This school year, there are 12 students who are enrolled in the AP Biology course, which is a college-level biology class. This course is opened for students to sign up, personally I signed up for this class because I want to understand the natural world around me, and the living organisms within our world. In addition, I believe that it would be helpful to understand the basic of this field especially because I want to attend medical school.   

In this first term, we learned about Ecology Biology and we’re introduced to the Cell Unit. To further our understanding of the Eukaryotic Cell, our facilitator assigned each student with an organelle. Students had to do research regarding the functions of their organelle, and share the information with other students, by simulating that we are being interview for different job’s position of a company. So each student had to pretend to be their organelle, and tried to convince the facilitator and other student why they (the organelles) are important for a company.

Here is my speech as peroxisome, trying to convince others to hire me as an employee.

 

Hello, My name Peroxi-glyoxy.

Let me get one thing straight, I might not be able to move around the company by myself, however I have good communication skill that allow be to hitchhike other endosomes to move to places, and with all my skills you’ll be amazed on how I do this nearly all by myself.  

Okay, so I understand that this company has cell wall to maintain the security of the company. Provide shield so that outsiders can’t intrude the business. But while cell wall is busy doing its jobs, sometimes there are enemies within our company, the one that can’t be killed by cell wall or any other employees. Such as hydrogen peroxides that can destroy the cell wall. Therefore I believe that both animal and plant department needs someone like me to be a staff member.

So at first glance, I might look like lysosomes, or one of the microbodies. However, we have a totally different role, actually roles.

I have over 50 different enzymes, that can be use to help and secure the company in different variety of biochemical ways.

As I have mentioned a second ago, hydrogen peroxide are really harmful for a company, since it is a by product of digestion, we can’t just stop getting energy to get rid of this H2O2, there for you should hire me. One of my enzymes call catalase is used to break down hydrogen peroxide, and convert it into water. For me since hydrogen peroxide can’t do me harm, I can use this toxic to break down other organic compound such uric acid, amino acids, and fatty acid though the process of oxidation. In addition, the oxidation of fatty acid can provide a major source of metabolic energy, the process of oxidizing fatty acid can be done by mitochondria and peroxisomes in the Animal Department, however for the plants department this job is only restricted to me.

For the Animal department, I can also do helps some other jobs such as synthesize cholesterol and dolichol those that use to make hormones, vitamin D, and digestive fluids, and especially in the Human sector of animal department, I also help to produce bile acid for the liver. And help with some aspect of energy metabolism.

For Plant department, I play a great role on converting of stored fatty acids to carbohydrates in seeds, so germinating plant has energy and raw materials that can be used for growth whereby here I am known as glyoxysomes or peroxisomes.

In the Leaves sector of the plant, I, peroxisome also involved in photorespiration, by allowing most of the carbon in glycolate to be recovered and utilized.

You must hire me because I am a hard worker and an essential aspect for the company to keep running.